Voice Processing Pipeline


The core of the XVF3610 voice processor is a high-performance audio processing pipeline that takes its input from a pair of the microphone and executes a series of signal processing algorithms to extract a voice signal from a complex soundscape. The audio pipeline can accept a reference signal from a host system which is used to perform Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC) to remove audio being played by the host. The audio pipeline provides two different output channels - one that is optimized for Automatic Speech Recognition systems and the other for voice communications.

Flexible audio signal routing infrastructure and a range of digital inputs and outputs enable the XVF3610 to be integrated into a wide range of system configurations, that can be configured at start up and during operation through a set of control registers.

In addition, the XVF3610-UA variant supports a standard USB PHY interface which supports a UAC audio device and device control over USB. The following sections describe the voice pipeline and the surrounding infrastructure in more detail.

Audio Processing Pipeline

The audio processing pipeline is common to both the XVF3610-UA and XVF3610-INT firmware variants. The signal processing chain is described below, with individual blocks and usage described in more detail in subsequent sections.

The XVF3610 audio processing pipeline takes inputs from a pair of MEMS Pulse Density Modulation (PDM) microphones and uses advanced signal processing to create audio streams suitable for use in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and voice communication applications. The pipeline enhances the captured audio stream using a set of complementary signal enhancement and noise reduction processes.


Fig. 4 The XVF3610 audio pipeline

The pipeline takes its input from a pair of low-cost PDM microphones and converts this signal to PCM for further processing:

  • Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC): Continuously modelling the room acoustics allows the AEC to remove audio being played into the room by the product which the XVF3610 is a component of. A reference copy of the audio is provided to the AEC in order for it to accurately estimate the echo.

  • Automatic Delay Estimation & Control (ADEC): Automatically monitors and automatically compensates for the delay between the reference audio and the echo received by the microphone.

Following echo cancellation, the ASR and communications paths diverge to permit parameter tuning appropriate for the individual audio output use cases.

  • Interference Cancellation (IC): Suppresses static noise from point sources such as cooker hoods, washing machines, or radios for which there is no reference audio signal available.

  • Voice Activity Detection (VAD): Controls adaption the IC and AGC to optimise output for near-end speech.

  • Noise Suppression (NS): Suppresses diffuse noise from sources whose frequency characteristics do not change rapidly over time (i.e., diffuse stationary noise).

  • Automatic Gain Control (AGC): Controls the audio output level via separate AGC channels for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and communications output. The VAD is used to prevent gain changes during speech to improve speech recognition performance.

The pipeline has been designed to minimise the need to tune and modify these functions. However, if required for specific use cases, these later sections of this document provide details of the relevant parameters and processes.

ASR and Communication Processing

The audio pipeline discussed above produces two separate audio streams, one specifically tuned for integration with keyword and ASR services and the other designed for conferencing and communication applications. Both processed audio streams are available simultaneously on the left and right channels of the USB and I2S audio outputs. The default configuration is as follows:

Table 2 Default channel mapping (both USB and I2S)



[0] - Left

ASR - Automatic Speech Recognition

[1] - Right


In situations where an ASR is used to invoke a call it may be necessary to continually monitor the ASR channel for a ‘end call’ intent. The parallel output of both ASR and Communications processed streams allow the combination of high-quality calling audio with the tuned ASR capability.

The IO_MAP configuration parameter (see Signal flow and processing section) allows users to also configure both channels to be ASR or Communications if required.

XVF3610-INT - For integrated voice interface applications

The XVF3610-INT product embeds the core audio processing pipeline in an audio infrastructure that supports rate conversion, filtering and signal routing. This infrastructure is controllable by the host system via a set of control registers. In addition, the XVF3610-INT provides a set of peripheral interfaces to the host system to other devices, eg digital inputs, LEDs, SPI peripherals etc.

The peripheral interfaces supported include an interface to an optional QSPI Flash device containing the XVF3610 firmware and configuration information that is loaded by the processor on startup.

The system architecture of the XVF3610-INT is shown below.


Fig. 5 XVF3610-INT System architecture

XVF3610-UA - For USB accessory voice interface applications

The XVF3610-UA variant includes the same audio infrastructure as the XFV3610-INT, but it includes a USB interface that implements a UAC1.0 audio device to interface to the host system. The USB interface also supports an Endpoint 0 control channel, and a USB HID to signal input events to the host.

The system architecture of the XVF3610-UA is shown below.


Fig. 6 XVF3610-UA System architecture

NOTE: The XVF3610-UA product also supports a hybrid mode of operation where the reference signal is delivered via I2S rather than USB. This mode is selected via modification of the configuration data stored in the flash device.